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成教专科《经贸知识英语》试题原题及答案

【导读】河南经贸职业学院成教专科《经贸知识英语》试题原题及答案整理包含课后练习题,阶段测试,简答练习,综合作业等相关原题及答案……

成教专科《经贸知识英语》试题原题及答案 图1

一、阶段测验

单项选择(一)

一、单选

1、Technicalskillsperformingspecializedtaskswithintheorganization.

A.areassociatedwith

B.differfrom

C.aresimilarto

D.aredifferentwith

答案:A

2、Corporatecultureisthesharedexperiences,stories,beliefs,andnorms.

A.whichcreatesacompany

B.thatcharacterizeacompany

C.whosecompanyhasgot

D.whichcharacterizeacompany

答案:C

3、Ifacompanyistogetthemostoutofitsworkers,itmustthoseworkers.

A.develop

B.select

C.promote

D.perfect

答案:A

4、Intheory,acompany’sauditorsareappointedindependentlybyitsshareholders,towhomtheyreport.“Whom”represents.

A.auditors

B.accountants

C.shareholders

D.company

答案:C

5、Over-capacityinthecarbusinessleadstoaseriesofjointagreementsandmergersbetween.

A.carcompanies

B.jointsventures

C.capacitylevel

D.jointsmergers

答案:A

6、FordintendedtoVolvosandhopedtouseVolvo’stechnologytodevelopnewcars.

A.share

B.focus

C.distribute

D.discover

答案:C

7、TheprinciplesintheOrganizationalChaosModelcanalsobeusedtothecompany’scompetition.

A.introduce

B.overcome

C.understand

D.explain

答案:B

8、Asaseniorstudent,youaresupposedtoknowbetterthanjustuntiltheexaminationtime.

A.fooledaround

B.tofoolaround

C.havingfooledaround

D.foolaround

答案:B

9、TransnationalcompanieswillinChina.

A.continuelocating

B.continuestolocate

C.continuetolocate

D.continuetobelocated

答案:C

10、E-businessisabouttransformingbusinessprocessand_______themwithInternettechnologies.

A.integrates

B.integrating

C.tointegrate

D.integrated

答案:B

11、OthercompaniesuseWebtechnologyto______businesselectronicallyatthewholesaleorretaillevel.

A.support

B.exchange

C.transact

D.share

答案:C

12、Thefundsneededtooperateanenterprisearerefereedtoas.

A.labour

B.capital

C.resources

D.land

答案:B

13、Theyalsowanttointegratethesesystems_______therestoftheirbusinessprocess.

A.with

B.and

C.for

D.to

答案:A

14、Accountingfirmsfrequently_________theirauditclients.

A.buymanagementskillsfrom

B.sellconsultingservicesto

C.provideauditassignmentfor

D.sendusefullinformationto

答案:B

15、Iwenttobuyanewtieto_______thisbrownsuit.

A.gointo

B.gowith

C.goafter

D.goagainst

答案:B

16、Thesecretaryenteredwithapencilandpaper,and_________everywordthemanagersaid.

A.madefor

B.tookup

C.tookdown

D.tookover

答案:C

17、Thefinancingofinternationaltradeismorecomplexthanthatofdomestictrade.‘That’heremeans.

A.financing

B.internationaltrade

C.domestictrade

D.trade

答案:A

18、Theprocessofeducation,experience,moreeducation,andtheniscalledacyclicalprocess.

A.lesseducation

B.moreexperience

C.educationandexperience

D.lessexperience

答案:B

19、Hardly_______theairportwhenhestartedforhisdestination.

A.Ihadreached

B.hadIreached

C.Ireached

D.hadreached

答案:B

20、Theclimberstriedtofindanew______tothetopofthemountain.

A.approach

B.route

C.entrance

D.road

答案:B

21、BOTrefersto()

A.Build,Operate,Transfer

B.Boss,Open,Trade

C.Bond,Open,Transfer

D.Bail,Office,Tax

答案:A

22、Internationalbusinessrefersto()

A.Internationaltrade

B.NationalEconomy

C.RegionalEconomy

D.NativeEconomy

答案:A

23、GDPrefersto()

A.GrossDomesticProduct

B.GrossNationalProduct

C.GrossDemandPrefer

D.GrossNationalIncome

答案:A

24、OECD是指()

A.经合组织

B.联合国

C.世贸组织

D.世界银行

答案:A

25、NAFTA是指()

A.北美自由贸易区

B.亚太经合组织

C.欧盟

D.东盟

答案:A

26、EU是指()

A.欧盟

B.北美自由贸易区

C.亚太经合组织

D.东盟

答案:A

27、MNC是指()

A.跨国公司

B.母公司

C.子公司

D.全球公司

答案:A

28、EconomicGlobalization是()

A.经济全球化

B.经济一体化

C.贸易全球化

D.一体化

答案:A

29、AbsoluteAdvantageisproposedby()

A.AdamSmith

B.Max

C.Robert

D.Porter

答案:A

30、TheoryofComparativeAdvantageis()

A.Dynamic

B.Wrong

C.Static

D.complex

答案:A

31、GSP是指()

A.普惠制

B.关税区

C.全球联盟

D.一体化

答案:A

32、EconomyofScale的汉语是()

A.规模经济

B.刻度经济

C.标准经济

D.绿色经济

答案:A

33、FOBrefersto()

A.FreeOnBoard

B.FreightonBoard

C.CostandFreight

D.Freightand

答案:A

34、Executedcontract的汉语意思是()

A.已履行的合同

B.待履行的合同

C.合同争议的解决

D.争议合同

答案:A

35、Counteroffer的汉语意思是()

A.还盘

B.报盘

C.报价

D.复盘

答案:A

36、Counterpurchase的汉语意思是()

A.反向购买

B.回购贸易

C.易货贸易

D.循环贸易

答案:A

37、Barter的汉语意思是

A.易货贸易

B.反向购买

C.回购贸易

D.循环贸易

答案:A

38、D/Arefersto()

A.Documentsagainstacceptance

B.Documentsagainstpayment

C.Documentarycollection

D.Documentspayment

答案:A

39、L/C是指()

A.信用证

B.托收

C.汇付

D.保函

答案:A

40、Confirmingbank的汉语意思是()

A.保兑行

B.付款行

C.承兑行

D.议付行

答案:A

42、Termcredit的汉语意思是()

A.远期信用证

B.即期信用证

C.光票信用证

D.信用证

答案:A

43、Sightcredit的汉语意思是()

A.即期信用证

B.远期信用证

C.光票信用证

D.信用证

答案:A

44、Carrier的汉语意思是()

A.承运人

B.托运人

C.收货人

D.托收

答案:A

45、Shipper的汉语意思是()

A.托运人

B.承运人

C.收货人

D.轮船

答案:A

46、Consignee的汉语意思是()

A.收货人

B.承运人

C.托运人

D.委托人

答案:A

47、Commoncarrier的汉语意思是()

A.共同承运人

B.收货人

C.托运人

D.委托人

答案:A

48、Insurer的汉语意思是()

A.承保人

B.被保险人

C.经纪人

D.保险

答案:A

49、Insured的汉语意思是()

A.被保险人

B.承保人

C.经纪人

D.保单

答案:A

50、F.P.A.refersto()

A.Freefromparticular

B.Withparticularaverage

C.Forcemajeure

D.WithparticularRisk

答案:A

51、W.P.A.refersto()

A.Withparticularaverage

B.Freefromparticular

C.Forcemajeure

D.FreefromAverage

答案:A

52、BOPrefersto()

A.BalanceofPayment

B.BuildOperateandProduct

C.BondoperateandPayment

D.BuildOperateandprodction

答案:A

53、IdleFundsrefersto()

A.hotmoney

B.Cash

C.Currency

D.check

答案:A

54、VERrefersto()

A.VoluntaryExportRestriction

B.VeryElementRight

C.JustInTime

D.VeryEveryRight

答案:A

55、资本市场(Capitalmarket)上的交易对象是————的长期证券。

A.一年以上

B.三个月以上

C.半年以上

D.无期限

答案:A

56、货币市场(Moneymarket)是指融资期限在[_]的金融市场.

A.一年以下

B.五年以下

C.三年以下

D.十年以上

答案:A

57、GATT成立于[_]年。

A.1947

B.1995

C.1937

D.2010

答案:A

58、UnitedNationsGeneralAssembly的汉语意思是()

A.联合国大会

B.联合国经济及社会理事会

C.联合国贸发会议

D.经合组织

答案:A

单项选择(二)

一、单选

1、Weareastate-operatedcorporation____boththeimportandexportoftextiles.

A.handlingin

B.trading

C.dealingwith

D.dealingin

答案:D

2、______wewouldliketoclosethebusinesswithyou,wefindyourpriceunacceptable.

A.Much

B.Howevermuch

C.Muchas

D.Despite

答案:C

3、Weshouldbeobligedifyoucouldfurnishus_____adetailedreport____thefinancialposition,businesslinesandotheraspectsofthejointventure.

A.with,on

B.with,for

C.on,for

D.for,on

答案:A

4、AnL/Cshouldbeestablishedinourfavorbydocumentarydraftatsixtydays’sight.

A.available

B./

C.paying

D.paid

答案:A

5、Theextrapremium_________byus.

A.isborn

B.willbeborne

C.willbetaken

D.willbeundertaken

答案:B

6、Thankyouforthe_____________orderofFebruary2for28,800raincoats.

A.captioned

B.captioning

C.tocaption

D.caption

答案:A

7、Sincethetransactionismade________CIFbasis,youaretoshipthegoods.

A.at

B.by

C.on

D.in

答案:C

8、Wewouldliketotakethisopportunitytowritetoyou___________thehopeofestablishingbusinessrelationswithyou.

A.at

B.for

C.with

D.in

答案:D

9、Weherebyauthorizeyouto___________onusat60daysaftersighttotheextentofUSD20,000.00.

A.open

B.establish

C.draw

D.build

答案:C

10、Wehavereceivedthedocumentsandtaken___________oftheaboveorderwhicharrivedatSydneyontheS.S.“Vanguard”.

A.shipment

B.consignment

C.lot

D.delivery

答案:D

11、Thiscorporation_________foodstuffs.

A.dealswith

B.dealsin

C.deals

D.dealson

答案:B

12、FromtheChamberofCommerceinyourcity,we________aboutyourvariousmodelsofsewingmachines.

A.known

B.haveknown

C.learned

D.havelearned

答案:D

13、Wewouldlikeyoutoquoteus________50metrictonsofpeanuts.

A.yourbestpricefor

B.yourbestpriceof

C.atyourbestprice

D.foryourbestpricefor

答案:A

14、Wearesorrythatthegoodsyou________areoutofstockatthemoment.

A.demanded

B.demand

C.required

D.require

答案:D

15、We________youthatregularorderswillfollowifthisorderisexecutedtoourentiresatisfaction.

A.ensure

B.makesureof

C.assure

D.insure

答案:C

16、Problemsoflong________shouldbesettledwithgreatcare.

A.time

B.period

C.standing

D.term

答案:C

17、Thecompanyusedtoarrangeinsuranceonitsexports________thePICC.

A.with

B.against

C.on

D.from

答案:A

18、Foryourinformation,theinsurancecompanyhasover2000________andagentsaroundtheworld.

A.principals

B.surveyors

C.salespersons

D.suppliers

答案:B

19、Asinvoiced,thewoodencase__________100dozenT-shirts.

A.included

B.covered

C.contained

D.loaded

答案:C

20、Ifyouwishtohavethegoods________atSingapore,youmustbeartheadditionalcost.

A.tobetransshipped

B.totransship

C.betransshipped

D.transshipped

答案:D

单项选择(三)

一、单选

1、Wetookdeliveryofthefivecartons,andgotthe________examined.

A.content

B.contentment

C.contents

D.containment

答案:C

2、Itisourusualpracticeto________youatsightassoonasshipmentismade.

A.notify

B.drawon

C.pay

D.compensate

答案:B

3、Therearetoomanyexamplesinaviationandother_______________ofwhathashappenedtocompaniesthathavetriedtodothat.

A.sections

B.sectors

C.segments

D.components

答案:B

4、Heisimpressed,hesays,bythewayinwhichoilcompanieshave___________fromlosingnationalimages.

A.obtained

B.got

C.reached

D.benefited

答案:D

5、IfacompanywishestoentertheChinesemarket,itusuallylooksforalocal_______________whowillcooperateinsettingupajointventure.

A.man

B.talent

C.manager

D.partner

答案:D

6、Ascompaniesmovetowards‘remoteworking’,theneedfortherighttoneofvoice________________toeveryleveloftheorganization.

A.extends

B.stretches

C.expands

D.attaches

答案:A

7、Whencustomerswantlast-minutechangestoclothing,theplantscannotmeetcustomers’tight_______________.

A.times

B.periods

C.dates

D.deadlines

答案:D

8、Wewouldappreciateitifwecouldbeyoursoledistributor.

A.pointedout

B.appointed

C.actedas

D.represented

答案:B

9、Pleasenotethatthegoodsyouorderedcanbecertainlypromisedforimmediate

shipmentreceiptofyourL/C.

A.upon

B.with

C.in

D.without

答案:A

10、Asweareoneoftheleadingimportersinthisline,weare____________tohandlelargequantities.

A.ataposition

B.ofaposition

C.onaposition

D.inaposition

答案:D

11、Weofferyouthefollowingitems______________yourreplyreachingherebyMay21ourtime.

A.subjectingto

B.tosubjectto

C.subjectsto

D.subjectto

答案:D

12、Weareconfidentthatthepackageofourproductswill_____________theroughesthandlingintransit.

A.sufferfrom

B.standupto

C.standto

D.putup

答案:B

13、PleasequoteusyourbestpriceCIFLagos,__________theearliestdateofshipment.

A.stating

B.stated

C.state

D.tostate

答案:A

14、Ifyoucan___—___usa3%discount,weshallgiveyouourinitialorderamountingtoUS$25,000.

A.provide

B.pay

C.guarantee

D.allow

答案:D

15、Weregretourinabilitytoagree____________yourproposaltopackthegoods____________cardboardboxes,becausetransshipmenthastobemadeatHongKongforthegoodstobeshippedtoourport.

A.on,in

B.to,in

C.with,in

D.to,by

答案:B

16、Wearefaxingyouthismorning,askingyoutoamendtheL/C______________“transshipmentallowed.”

A.toread

B.toreading

C.asreads

D.reads

答案:A

17、Weregretbeingunableto_____________withthebuyer’srequestforcoveringinsuranceuptotheinlandcity,asitisnotstipulatedinthecontract.

A.comply

B.conform

C.takeup

D.deal

答案:A

18、Werequirethebicyclestobepackedinawoodencase___–___withsoftmaterials.

A.full

B.supported

C.padded

D.surrounded

答案:C

19、InourletterofMay5,wemade__________clearthatshipmentistobeeffectedinJune.

A.you

B.them

C.that

D.it

答案:D

20、_________wewouldliketosupplyyouwiththeproduct,weareunabletofillyourorder.

A.Asmuchas

B.Muchas

C.Verymuch

D.As

答案:B

单项选择(四)

一、单选

1、Wecansupplythistypeoffurniture________________veryfavorableterms.

A.on

B.for

C.against

D.to

答案:A

2、Wecanonlyassumethatanoversighthasbeenmadeinmaking_____________theorder,

A.out

B.for

C.at

D.up

答案:D

3、OurcompanyisasubsidiaryofCathayBusinessMachinesImport&ExportCorporationandwe__________officesupplies.AllofthefollowingcansuitablycompletethissentenceEXCEPT:

A.dealin

B.specializein

C.handlein

D.handle

答案:C

4、Allourskirtsyousawatthefashionshowinthreesizes.

A.become

B.get

C.come

D.go

答案:C

5、Pleasenotethatourofferwillremainvaliduntiltheendofthismonth.TheunderlinedwordcanbesubstitutedforbyeachofthefollowingEXCEPT:

A.opened

B.good

C.firm

D.open

答案:A

6、Please________SalesContractNo.8956inthreeoriginals.

A.makeoff

B.makeout

C.makeup

D.makefor

答案:B

7、Sofarasweknow,theratesthey____areamongthemostcompetitiveintheline.

A.quote

B.place

C.make

D.bid

答案:A

8、Warningmarkssuchas“Fragile”mustbeontheoutsideofeachcarton.

A.written

B.brushed

C.copied

D.stenciled

答案:D

9、TheconsignmentwasshippedontheSSMermaidwhichleftforShanghaionMay15.

A.clean

B.cleanly

C.clear

D.clearly

答案:A

10、Wewill______ourbankerstoamendtheL/Candgiveyoutheadvicewithoutdelay.

A.advise

B.inform

C.instruct

D.notice

答案:C

11、Wearesorrytotellyouthatneitherofthe____youmentionedhasreachedusyet.

A.letterofcredit

B.lettersofcredit

C.letterofcredits

D.lettersofcredits

答案:B

12、Toremedyourfault,wehaveforwarded__________forallthedefectiveitems.

A.alternatives

B.choices

C.substitutes

D.replacements

答案:D

13、Wewouldnotgiveyouanylowerpriceyoucouldplaceanorderformorethan500tons.

A.expect

B.until

C.unless

D.besides

答案:C

14、Wewillarrangeto_________anall-riskinsuranceonthefollowingconsignment.

A.getout

B.makeout

C.takeout

D.putout

答案:C

15、Wehopethatyourcustomerswillnotobjecttothegoodsinwoodencases.

A.packing

B.pack

C.wrap

D.wrapping

答案:A

16、Unlessotherwise_____________,wewishtoarrangetotakeoutinsuranceontheshipmentagainstAllRisksandWarRisk.

A.instructing

B.instructed

C.toinstruct

D.instruct

答案:B

17、___________wewouldliketosupplyyouwiththeproduct,weareunabletofillyourorder.

A.Asmuchas

B.Muchas

C.Verymuch

D.As

答案:B

18、Wecansupplythistypeoffurniture_____________veryfavorableterms

A.on

B.for

C.against

D.to

答案:A

19、Wehavereceivedthedocumentsand__________deliveryoftheaboveorderwhicharrivedatSydneyontheS.S.“Vanguard”.

A.shipped

B.taken

C.made

D.sent

答案:B

20、JohnHilton,______isajournalist,madeanexcellentspeechatthemeetingyesterday.

A.that

B.whom

C.who

D.whose

答案:C

单项选择(五)

一、单选

1、Businesspeoplebegantoimplementthemarketingconcept,______thatinvolvestheprocessofsatisfyingcustomerneedsandachievingtheorganization’sgoals.

A.aworldviewonbusiness

B.aEuropeanphilosophyofmarketing

C.abusinessphilosophy

D.awell-knowingmeaning

答案:C

2、Theexpiryin1999ofthe“________”wasprobablythemainreasonforteamingupwithNissan.

A.gentlemen’sagreement

B.agreementforFrance

C.Japaneseagreement

D.Americanagreement

答案:A

3、FordintendedtoVolvosandhopedtouseVolvo’stechnologytodevelopnewcars.

A.share

B.focus

C.distribute

D.discover

答案:C

4、TheprinciplesintheOrganizationalChaosModelcanalsobeusedtothecompany’scompetition.

A.introduce

B.overcome

C.understand

D.explain

答案:B

5、Thoseorganizationscandominatetheirindustryandexperiencepositivegrowth

A.whichrespondtocustomer’sdemands

B.thatmakeinnovationapriority

C.ofbeingalreadyobsolete

D.whichappealtosuppliers’need

答案:B

6、Wehaveatosharedprosperity.

A.commission

B.commitment

C.competition

D.commandment

答案:B

7、China’sprimarystageofsocialismwillforoverahundredyears.

A.last

B.skip

C.backward

D.stay

答案:C

8、Internationalbusinesscoversallbusinessactivitiesthatinvolveexchanges.

A.withinnationalboundaries

B.outsidenationalboundaries

C.acrossnationalboundaries

D.overnationalboundaries

答案:B

9、Johnsonhasbeensacked!Peoplearesayinghe’savictimofinternal.

A.politics

B.performance

C.decision

D.voice

答案:C

10、Anation’sisthedifferencebetweenthevalueofitsexportsandthevalueofitsimports.

A.paymentofbills

B.balanceoftrade

C.balanceofpayments

D.balanceofgoods

答案:A

11、There’sclearlyastronglinkpayandproductivity.

A.between

B.with

C.under

D.in

答案:A

12、Theprocessofeducation,experience,moreeducation,andtheniscalledacyclicalprocess.

A.lesseducation

B.moreexperience

C.educationandexperience

D.lessexperience

答案:B

13、Sometimesabus_______getsonthebusandchecksthetickets.

A.officer

B.conductor

C.agent

D.driver

答案:B

14、Asaresultofthe_________hisseriousmistakes,themanagerresignedfromtheoffice.

A.expansion

B.explosion

C.exposure

D.explain

答案:C

15、WTOhasbeenformedtodismantletradebarriersandprovideabetterenvironmentforinternationalbusiness.‘Dismantle’heremeans_______.

A.setup

B.remove

C.balance

D.build

答案:B

16、Thesecretaryenteredwithapencilandpaper,and_________everywordthemanagersaid.

A.madefor

B.tookup

C.tookdown

D.tookover

答案:C

17、Agovernmentagency,theSecuritiesandExchangeCommission,would________theauditors.

A.pointout

B.point

C.appoint

D.appointout

答案:A

18、________mustfulfillitsownpurposewhilesimultaneouslyfittinginwiththeothers.

A.Allorganizations

B.Everyemployee

C.Eachcomponent

D.Eachcompany

答案:C

19、Thebasicmanagementskillsare______

A.performingskills,marketingsillsandplanningskills

B.technicalskills,humanrelationsskillsandconceptualskills

C.organizingskills,controllingskillsandleadingskills

D.Allabove

答案:A

20、Differentcorporateculturesarefoundindifferent_______.

A.types

B.businesses

C.companies

D.countries

答案:C

二、简答练习

汉译英:

1、这些机构的共同目标是通过把发达国家的资金输送到发展中国家帮助这些国家提高生活水平。

答案:Thecommonobjectiveoftheseinstitutionsistohelpraisestandardsoflivingindevelopingcountriesbychannelingfinancialresourcestothemfromdevelopedcountries.

2、企业投保的主要刺激是他们可以腾出资金,进行其他项目的投资。

答案:Themainstimulasforintreprisestoinsureisthattheycanreleasetheirfundsandinvestinotherprojects.

3、世界各国被世界银行分为三大领域:高收入国家,中等收入国家和低收入国家。

答案:CountriesintheworldaregroupedintofourcategariesbytheWorldBank:high-income,middle-income,andlow-incomecountries.

4、国际贸易指的是不同国家(或地区)之间的商品和劳务的交换活动。

答案:InternationaltradestandsforTheexchangeofgoodsandservicesproducedinonecountrywiththoseproducedinanothersufficient.

5、自从进入WTO后,中国商业银行及保险行业日益受到来自国外同行的竞争。

答案:ChinesecommercialbanksandinsuranceenterpriseshavefacedtheincreasingcompetitionfromtheirforeigncounterpartssinceChinaenteredWTO.

6、信用证的付款方式对买卖双方都提供了保障。

答案:Thepaymentofcreditprovidesassurancetoboththebuyersandthesellers.

7、随着制造业和技术的发展,出现了另一个刺激贸易的因素,即国际专业化。

答案:Withthedevelopmentofmanufacturingandtechnology,therearoseanotherincentivefortrade,i.e.internationalspecialization.

8、外汇汇率有三种形式,即:买进汇率,售出汇率和两者的平均值——中间汇率。

答案:Therearethreetypesofforeignexchangepricenamely:thebuyingrate,thesellingrateandtheaverageoftheprevioustwo-themedialrate.

9、在所有条款中,买卖双方各自的义务排列在10项标题下。

答案:Underallterms,therespectiveobligationsofthebuyerandtheselleraregroupedundertenheadings.

10、世界上任何一个地方任何一种社会的经济增长都与利用运输有直接的关系。

答案:Inanyplaceoftheworld,theeconomicgrowthofanysocietyhasadirectrelationwiththeadoptionoftransportation.

11、跨国公司是在一个以上国家拥有、控制和经营资产的商业组织。

答案:MNCreferstoancommercialorganizationwhichowns,controlsandmanagesassetinmoreotheronecountry.

12、经济联盟的成员国不仅要在税收,政府开支,企业策略等方面保持一致,而且还应使用同一的货币。

答案:Themembersofaneconomicunionarerequirednotonlytoharmonizetheirtaxation,governmentexpenditure,industrypolicies,etc.,butalsousethesamecurrency.

13、在国际贸易中进出口双方都面临风险,因为总存在对方不履约的可能。

答案:Ininternationaltrade,boththeexporterandimporterfacerisksasthereisalwaysthepossibilitythattheotherpartymayfailtofulfillthecontract.

14、保险是一种风险转移机制。通过保险个人或企业可以将生活中一些不确定因素转移给其他人。

答案:Insuranceisarisktransfermechanism,bywhichtheindividualorthebusinessenterprisecanshiftsomeoftheun-certaintyoflifetotheshouldersofothers.

15、合同依法实施,未能履行合同义务的一方可能受到起诉,并被强制做出赔偿。

答案:Acontractisenforceablebylaw,andthepartythatfailstofulfillhiscontractualobligationsmaybesuedandforcedtomakecompensation.

16、国际贸易一般指不同国家的当事人进行的交易,它涉及到许多因素,因而比国内贸易复杂得多。

答案:Internationalteadereferstotransactionbetweenpartiesfromdifferentcountries.itinvolvesmorefactorsandthusismorecomplicatedthandomesticbusiness.

17、国外直接投资主要有三种形式:建立新企业、购买现有设施和建立合资公司。

答案:FDIismainlypracticedinthreeforms:buildingnewenterprises,purchasingexistingfacilitiesandformingjointventures.

18、没有可保利益的保险合同是无效的。而任何根据这类合同提出的索赔都不会被受理。

答案:Aninsurancecontractwithoutaninsurableinteresttosupportitisinvalidandanyclaimmadeuponitwillnotbeentertained.

19、在知识产权保护不力的国家,最好不要采用国际许可经营。

答案:Itisnotadvisabletouselicensingincountrieswithweakintellectualpropertyprotection.

20、在复杂的经济世界中,没有一个国家可以完全自给自足。

答案:Inthecomplexeconomicworld,nocountrycanbecompletelyself-sufficient.

21、信用证不能给缔约双方提供绝对的安全。

答案:Theletterofcreditcannotprovideabsolutesecurityforthecontractingparties.

22、合同是在双方所达成的协议的基础上制定的,而协议又是双方进行商务谈判的结果

答案:Thecontractisbasedonagreement,whichistheresultofbusinessnegotiation.

23、技术、资本和现成的市场是跨国企业组织带给不发达国家的利益。

答案:Technology,capitalandreadymarketsaresortofbenefitsMNEsbringtoless-developedhostcountries.

24、贸易可能产生于规模经济,即大规模生产的成本优势。

答案:Trademayoccuroutofeconomiesofscale,thatis,thecostadvantagesoflarge-scaleproduction.

25、比较利益学说在这个问题上提供了一个令人满意的答案。

答案:Thetheoryofcompetitiveadvantagehasofferedasatisfactoryanswertothisquestion

英译汉:

1、TheBankforInternationalSettlement(BIS)isauniqueinstitution.Manyofitsoperationsareoftypesnormallyperformedbyacommercialbank,butitisownedprincipallybycentralbanks,andmanagedbycentralbanksanditsprincipalcustomersarecentralbanks.

答案:国际结算银行是一个独特的机构。尽管它拥有商业银行的许多常规业务,但它却是由中央银行拥有,管理并将各国央行作为其主要客户。

2、TheobjectsofBISaretopromotethecooperationamongcentralbanksandtoprovideadditionalfacilitiesforinternationaloperations.

答案:国际结算银行的目标是促进各国央行间的合作,从而为国际贸易提供额外的支持。

3、Inthe1970sand1980scountertradewasdifferentfromtheoldpracticealthoughsomesimilaritiesremained.

答案:20世纪七八十年代,对销贸易尽管保留一些与过去相似的地方,但它却与过去明显不同。

4、Currentcountertradepartnersarenotnecessarilyfamiliarpartnersandgoodsexchangedaresometimesverticallyrelated.Currentcountertradecanbecategorizedasfollows.

答案:当下的对销贸易的贸易伙伴不再是熟悉的伙伴,交易的商品也并不总是垂直相关的。现行的对销贸易可分类如下。

5、Itshouldbenoted,however,thattheexistenceofaletterofcreditisnotaguaranteeofpaymenttoanyone.

答案:然而应该注意到,有了信用证并不能保证对任何人付款。

6、Theexistenceofcreditonlyassurespaymenttothebeneficiaryifthetermsandconditionsoftheletterofcreditarefulfilled.

答案:信用证只保证在其条款得到满足的情况下对受益人付款。

7、Inaddition,aletterofcreditdoesnotinsurethatthematerialspurchasedwillbethoseinvoicedorshipped.

答案:另外,信用证不担保发票载明的货物或实际装运的货物就是所购货物。

8、Themembersofaneconomicunionarerequirednotonlytoharmonizetheirtaxation,governmentexpenditure,industrypolicies,etc.,butalsousethesamecurrency.

答案:经济联盟的成员不仅要在税收、政府开支、产业政策等方面保持一致,而且还要使用统一的货币。

9、ThetermTriadreferstothethreerichestregionsoftheworld,theUnitedStates,theEuropeanUnionandJapanthatofferthemostimportantbusinessopportunities,

答案:术语TRIAD是指世界上最富有的三大市场:美国、欧盟和日本。这些市场提供着最重要的商业机会。

10、TheIFCwasestablishedin1956.Itsfunctionistoassisttheeconomicdevelopmentofless-developedcountriesbypromotinggrowthintheprivatesectoroftheireconomiesandhelpingtomobilizedomesticandforeigncapitalforthispurpose.

答案:国际金融公司成立于1956年,其宗旨是通过促进经济中私营企业的增长并为此目的帮助调动国内外资本,从而援助不发达国家的经济发展。

11、MembershipintheIBRDisaprerequisiteformembershipintheIFC.

答案:参加国际金融公司的会员必须是世界银行的会员.

12、Astraightbillofladingismadeoutsothatonlythenamedconsigneeisentitledtotakedeliveryofthegoodsunderthebill.

答案:记名提单是为了只让规定的收货人提取该提单项下的货物。

13、Theconsigneeisdesignatedbytheshipper.Thecarrierhastohandoverthecargotothenamedconsignee,nottoanythirdpartyinpossessionofthebill.

答案:收货人是由托运人指定的。承运人必须把货物交给指定的收货人,而不能交给任何持有该提单的第三方。

14、Thiskindofbillofladingisnottransferable.Theshippercan’tpassthebilltoathirdpartybyendorsement.

答案:这种提单是不可转让的,托运人不能通过背书将其转给第三方。

15、Becauseofthelimitedfunctions,thisbillisinveryrestrictedapplication.Whengoodsareshippedonanon-commercialbasis,suchassamplesorexhibits,orwhenthegoodsareextremelyvaluable,astraightbillofladingisgenerallyissued.

答案:由于作用受到限制,记名提单提单使用很有限,一般是在运输样品,展品之类的非赢利目的的货物,或特别贵重商品时使用记名提单。

16、Inchoosingatransportationmodeforaparticularproduct,shippersconsiderasmanyassixcriteria:speed,frequency,dependability,capability,availabilityandcost.

答案:为了给某种产品选定一种运输方式,货主要考虑六个标准:速度、频率、可靠性、能力、便利性和成本。

17、Ifashipperseeksspeed,airandtruckaretheprimecontenders.Ifthegoalislowcost,thenwaterandpipelinearetheprimecontenders.

答案:若货主要求速度,空运和汽车运输是首要选择。如果目标是低成本,那么水运和管道运输最好。

18、Shippersareincreasinglycombiningtwoormoretransportationmodesthankstocontainerization.Containerizationconsistsofputtingthegoodsinboxesortrailersthatareeasytotransferbetweentwotransportationmodes.

答案:由于集装箱化的发展,货主越来越多地将两种或更多的运输方式结合在一起,集装箱化是指将货物装入便于在两种运输方式间互换的箱子里或拖车上。

19、Butintheshortandnot-so-longtermfutureafterforeignbanksentertheChinesemarket,thesebankswillbeabletouselowerpricesandefficientservices,includingsuchservicesastele-banking,towinoveralargenumberofcustomersfromdomesticbanks,especiallyprizedcustomers.

答案:但是在短期和不太长的时期内,外国银行进入中国市场将能利用低廉的价格和高效的服务,包括远程银行服务,从国内银行拉走大量客户,尤其是受重视的客户。

20、Thetoughestchallengethegovernmentwillfacewillbetoeliminatebaddebts,implementcautiousandstandardriskmanagementmodels,andtightenupbankadministrationsothatdomesticbankscanadapttointernationalcompetition.

答案:政府面临的最严峻的挑战是消除坏账,执行谨慎、规范的风险管理模式,加强对银行的管理,以使国内银行能适应国际竞争。

21、Thefirstisthatnonationhasallofthecommoditiesthatitneeds,countriesthatlackcomeresourceswithintheirownboundariesmustbuyfromcountriesthatexportthem.

答案:首先,没有一个国家能生产它所需要的全部产品。缺少某些资源的国家必须从那些出口该资源的国家购买。

22、WhenanimportantclientofacompanyengagesinFDIandstartsafactoryisaforeignmarket,thefirm,eitherapartssupplierorserviceprovider,mayverylikelyfollowitsclientandmakeFDIoverseassoasnottolosethebusinesstoitscompetitors.

答案:当某一个公司的重要客户从事对外直接投资、在国外市场建厂时,作为其零件供应商或服务提供商,该公司很可能会追随客户也在国外投资。这样才不会让竞争对手抢去生意。

23、TheintroductionofJITinventorymanagementsystemincreasesthenecessityofsuchinvestment,sincethesystemismeanttominimizetheinventorytoincreaseefficiency,puttingthesuppliersatdisadvantagetomakesupplyfromadistantforeigncountry.

答案:即时库存管理系统的引进使此类投资更加必要,因为该系统意在把库存降至最低以提高效率。如果供应商还从遥远的国外供货,他们将处于不利地位。

24、Counterpurchase:theassumptionbyanexporterofatransferableobligationthroughseparatebutlinkedcontracttoacceptasfullorpartialpaymentgoodsandservicesfromtheimporterorimportingcountry.

答案:互购贸易:出口商承担能转移的责任,通过分立的但相互联系的合同接受进口商或进口国的货物和服务作为全部或部分付款。

25、Themainstimulustoenterpriseisthereleaseoffunds,nowavailableforinvestmentintheproductivesideofabusiness,whichwouldotherwiseneedtobeheldineasilyaccessiblereservesifthefirmhadnottransferredtherisktoaninsurer.

答案:企业投保的主要动力是他们可以腾出资金留作企业其他生产项目的投资。如果公司不将风险转移给承保人,这笔资金就要留下作为可随时使用的储备金。

填词完成句子

1、The most important shipping 1 is the bill of 2 . It is: firstly, a contract between the 3 and the shipping company; secondly, a receipt for the consignment; and thirdly, a document of 4 . It not only contains a full 5 of the consignment-numbers and weights and marks of packages, but a lot of other information as well. It lists the name of the shipper and the carrying vessel, the ports of 6 and 7 . The 8 , the name of the consignee, and the 9 of shipment, which is very important 10 a contractual point of view. 

答案:1.document2.lading3.shipper4.title5.description6.shipment7.destination8.freight9.date10.from

2、The euro is 1 a tool to 2 political solidarity. This political motivation began when the idea of the European union and a 3 currency was first conceived. while it also has the economic effect of 4 the economies of participating countries , it ultimately does much more for the European union. Economically, the 5 advantages include: 6 of exchange-rate fluctuations, 7 transparency, lower transaction 8 , increased trade across borders, increased cross-border employment simplified billing, financial market 9 ,macro-economic stability, lower interest 10 , and structural reform for European economies.

答案:1.fundamentally2.enhance3.single4.unifying5.euro’s6.elimination7.price8.costs9.stability10.rate

3、 International trade-the exchange of goods and services 1 borders is often explained by the theory of comparative advantage which has become the cornerstone of modern thinking 2 international trade. This theory was produced by David Ricardo 3 was an English economist in the nineteenth century. This theory points out that trade between countries can be 4 beneficial even if a country is less 5 than another in the production of every commodity. As 6 as there are minor, relative differences in the efficiency of producing a commodity, 7 the poor country can have a comparative advantage in producing 8 comparative advantage is not a static concept. A country may 9 a particular comparative advantage purely through its own actions, independent of the endowments of nature. A case in point is Switzerland’s 10 advantage in watchmaking.

答案:1.across2.on3.who4.mutually5.efficient6.long7.even8.it9.develop10.comparative

4、International investment can be classified into two categories: portfolio investment and foreign direct investment. portfolio investment is a kind of investment in 1 the investor does not exercise any managerial control. The investor either holds foreign bonds or other non-equity 2 which do not confer ownership rights or the investor holds stock shares (or other equities)in a foreign company in an amount 3 small to exercise any managerial control. In 4 foreign direct investment is a 5 equity investment in a foreign company that gives the investor managerial control 6 that company, foreign derect investments are mainly 7 out by multinational corporations . surveys and cases studies indicate that their common 8 for making foreign direct investments are based on strategic considerations involving market 9 ,technological know-how, reducing 10 of distribution and transportation, labor, raw materials and political factors. 

答案:1. which2.securities3.too4.contrast5.long-term6.over7.carried8.motives9.penetration10.costs

5、Reasons for the increasing use of counter trade include: firstly, the world debt 1 has made ordinary trade financing very 2 . Many countries cannot 3 the trade credit or financial 4 to pay for desired imports. Secondly, countries are increasingly returning to the notion of bilateralism as a way to reduce trade 5 . Thirdly, counter trade is often viewed 6 an excellent mechanism to gain entry 7 new markets. The party receiving the goods may become a new 8 , opening up new international marketing channels and ultimately 9 the market. And lastly, 10 counter trade services helps sellers differentiate its products from those of competitors. 

答案: 1.crisis2.risky3.obtain4.assistance5.imbalances6.as7.into8.distributor9.expanding10.providing

词汉译英

1、肮脏浮动

答案:the dirty float

2、中间价

答案:.medial rate

3、汇率

答案:exchange rate

4、有价证券

答案:securities

5、普惠制

答案:Generalized System of Preferences

6、国民待遇

答案:national treatment

7、反贴补措施

答案:counter-veiling-measures

8、免责条款

答案:escape clauses

9、殖民地

答案:the colony

10、领土

答案:territory

11、债权国

答案:The credit country

12、被保险人

答案:the Insurant

13、人口计划

答案:the Population plan

14、特惠税

答案:the Preferential tax

15、基础设施项目

答案:Infrastructure projects

16、定期付款/分阶段付款

答案:Regular payment/payment in stages

17、破产

答案:Bankruptcy

18、土地和劳动力

答案:The land and Labour

19、装箱单

答案:Packing list

20、国际合同

答案:The international contract

21、自由贸易区

答案:free trade zone

22、进口税

答案:import duty

23、开证银行

答案:opening bank

24、中间产品

答案:intermediate product

25、对外直接投资

答案:foreign direct investment

26、技术转让

答案:transfer of technology

27、特别提款权

答案:special drawing rights

28、制成品

答案:finished goods

29、外汇短缺

答案:foreign exchange shortage

30、配额限制

答案:quota restraint

31、装船通知

答案:Shipping advice

32、原产地港口

答案:Port of origin

33、保兑信用证

答案:confirmed letter of credit

34、世界银行

答案:the World Bank

35、货物保险

答案:Cargo insurance

36、商品交易会

答案:trade fairs

37、目的地

答案:Destination

38、互利贸易

答案:Mutual benefit trade

39、增值税

答案:Value added tax

40、追溯到

答案:Dating back to

41、循环信用证

答案:Circulation L/C

42、空运提单

答案:Airway bill

43、比较利益(优势)

答案:the Comparative advantage

44、跨国公司

答案:Multinational company

45、专业化

答案:Specialization

46、金融市场

答案:Financial markets

47、有价证券

答案:Securities

48、间接标价

答案:Indirect price

49、有形贸易

答案:The visible trade

50、发票

答案:Bill

词英译汉

1、inadetour

答案:迂回的

2、shareholders

答案:股东

3、competitivedevaluation

答案:竞争性贬值

4、consignor

答案:寄售人

5、customermobility

答案:客户流动性

6、escapeclauses

答案:豁免条款

7、potentialloss

答案:潜在损失

8、carryingvessel

答案:运载船只

9、negligent

答案:粗心大意

10、specificduty

答案:从量税

11、incomedistributionofamarket

答案:市场收入分布

12、cleancredit

答案:光票信用证

13、setforth

答案:陈述的

14、equityinvestment

答案:股权投资

15、akinto

答案:近似的

16、endowmentofnature

答案:自然的赋予

17、allrisks

答案:一切险

18、non-tradesettlement

答案:非贸易结算

19、standingcommittee

答案:常务委员会

20、comparativeadvantage

答案:比较利益

21、customsarea

答案:关税区

22、rollon-rollofftraffic

答案:集装箱水平装卸法

23、amendment

答案:修正案

24、goldstandard

答案:黄金标准

25、gilt-edgedstocks

答案:金边股票

26、compoundduties

答案:复合关税

27、discountrate

答案:贴现率

28、certificateofquality

答案:质量证书

29、nationaltreatment

答案:国民待遇

30、costeconomies

答案:成本经济体

31、copyright

答案:版权

32、percapitaincome

答案:人均收入

33、non-discriminationprinciple

答案:非歧视原则

34、broker

答案:经纪人

35、exchangerate

答案:汇率

36、deferredpayment

答案:延期付款

37、commoncarrier

答案:普通承运人

38、contractingparties

答案:缔约方

39、validityperiod

答案:有效期

40、advaloremduty

答案:从价税

41、countertrade

答案:反向贸易

42、hyperinflation

答案:极度通货膨胀

43、EuropeanPaymentUnion

答案:欧洲支付联盟

44、consignment

答案:寄售

45、debit

答案:借方

46、drawee

答案:受票人

47、partialshipment

答案:分批装运

48、confirmedcredit

答案:保兑信用证

49、entrepreneur

答案:企业家

50、client

答案:顾客

三、综合作业

1、Dear Sirs Lightweight batteries We are the manufacturers of BROADWAY delivery vehicles and electronic vehicles for disabled people. Our company is a subsidiary of Broadway International Inc. of Portland, Oregon. We are seeking an alternative supplier of lightweight batteries to power our vehicles. As far as we are aware you do not have a local distributor of your products in this country. A full specification of our requirements is given on the attached sheet. Quantity required: 4,800 units Delivery: by 15 January 2007 Please quote us your best CIF price, giving a full specification of your product and shipping date. We would need to have samples of the batteries to test in our laboratories before placing a firm order. We usually deal with new suppliers on the basis of payment in our currency by confirmed 60-day irrevocable letter of credit. If our laboratory tests are satisfactory and you can provide us with a good price and service, we will be happy to place more substantial orders on a regular basis. We look forward to receiving an early reply to this enquiry. Yours faithfully Fred A North Buying Manager Enclosed: specification and technical brochure 1.( ) What is the purpose of the letter? _________________. A. To promote BROADWAY products and services. B. To persuade customers to place an order. C. To seek a prospective supplier. D. To thank customers for their orders. 2.( ) Why can’t the products mentioned in the letter be purchased locally? ______. A. Because the products have been sold out at that moment. B. Because they don’t like the products sold locally. C. Because the products are sold in the local market at much higher prices. D. Because no local distributors sell such products. 3.( ) The trade term CIF should be followed by ________________. A. port of destination B. port of shipment C. place of destination D. place of shipment 4. ( )The phrase “deal with” in the letter means _________________. A. handle B. specialize in C. cope with D. do business with 5. ( ) The proposed terms of payment are _________________. A. by 60-day confirming irrevocable L/C B. by 60-day transferable irrevocable L/C C. by confirmed irrevocable L/C available by draft at 60-day sight D. by 60-day bill of exchange

释疑:A|D|A|D|C

2、Ask a Swedish Ericsson executive ‘Talar du Svenska?’ and he may well reply ‘Yes. But only at home. At work I speak English.’ Ericsson is one of a growing number of European companies that use English as their official corporate language. These companies recognize and, at the same time, increase the dominance of English as the language of international communication. Soon the number of speakers of English as a second language will exceed that of native English speakers. Although a company might use English as its official language, its employees are unlikely to be bilingual. Language trainer Jacquie Reid thinks we consistently overestimate the fluency of nonnative speakers. ‘We always assume that because their language skills are better than ours, they understand everything we say.’ So how should we adapt our use of language and what are the common problems? ‘Simplify it,’ is Reid’s advice. ‘Don’t over-complicate the message. Reduce what you’re saying to manageable chunks.’ Reid always tells people to limit themselves to one idea per sentence. ‘It’s also important to slow down and not raise your voice.’ Dr Jasmine Patel, a language consultant at Europhone, says different languages also have their own approach to dialogue. ‘The British start with idiomatic expression such as So, should we get down to it? And understate important issues with phrases such as There could be a slight problem. They also say That’s a good idea, but …when they mean No and they repeatedly use the word get with different meanings. And worst of all, they insist on using humour which is so culture-specific that no-one understand it.’ The majority of English native speakers are insensitive to the stress of trying to understand a foreign language in a work environment because they rely on the business world speaking their language. At Ericsson, however, this is not the case. At the UK subsidiary, Ericsson Telecommunications, management training courses include seminars on both language and cross-cultural issues. A frequent comment made in follow-up evaluations is that increased awareness has improved communication and, more importantly, given participants a better understanding of their own language and how others might interpret it. 1.( ) Why does Ericsson use English as its official language? _____________. A. Because English is spoken the majority of people in the world. B. Because English is the native language of British people. C. Because English is the dominant language of international communication. D. Because English is a useful tool in the business world. 2. ( )Which of the following ways may not help native English speakers to communicate more effectively? _______________. A. To make their message simple B. To keep one idea per sentence C. To speak more slowly D. To use vogue terms when speaking 3. ( )Native English speakers are not aware of the difficulties of listening to foreign language as _________________. A. English is preferred by all people at work B. English is the most useful language. C. English is spoken in their work environment. D. they take pride in speaking English at work. 4.( )Ericsson makes its employees more aware of the difficulties of listening to foreign language through _______________. A. teaching its employees foreign languages B. sending its employees overseas to learn foreign languages C. more exchanges with overseas companies D. language and cultural awareness seminars 5.( )The word “approach” in the second line of the fourth paragraph is closest in meaning to ______________. A. contact B. touch C. way D. appropriate

释疑:C|D|C|D|C

3、You hear the refrain all the time: the U.S. economy looks good statistically, but it doesn’t feel good. Why doesn’t ever-greater wealth promote ever-greater happiness? It is a question that dates at least to the appearance in 1958 of The Affluent (富裕的) Society by John Kenneth Galbraith, who died recently at 97. The Affluent Society is a modern classic because it helped define a new moment in the human condition. For most of history, “hunger, sickness, and cold” threatened nearly everyone, Galbraith wrote. “Poverty was found everywhere in that world. Obviously it is not of ours.” After World War II, the dread of another Great Depression gave way to an economic boom. In the 1930s unemployment had averaged 18.2 percent; in the 1950s it was 4.5 percent. To Galbraith, materialism had gone mad and would breed discontent. Through advertising, companies conditioned consumers to buy things they didn’t really want or need. Because so much spending was artificial, it would be unfulfilling. Meanwhile, government spending that would make everyone better off was being cut down because people instinctively—and wrongly—labeled government only as “a necessary evil.” It’s often said that only the rich are getting ahead; everyone else is standing still or falling behind. Well, there are many undeserving rich—overpaid chief executives, for instance. But over any meaningful period, most people’s incomes are increasing. From 1995 to 2004, inflation-adjusted average family income rose 14.3 percent, to $43,200. People feel “squeezed” because their rising incomes often don’t satisfy their rising wants—for bigger homes, more health care, more education, faster Internet connections. The other great frustration is that it has not eliminated insecurity. People regard job stability as part of their standard of living. As corporate layoffs increased, that part has eroded. More workers fear they’ve become “the disposable American,” as Louis Uchitelle puts it in his book by the same name. Because so much previous suffering and social conflict stemmed from poverty, the arrival of widespread affluence suggested utopian (乌托邦式的) possibilities. Up to a point, affluence succeeds. There is much less physical misery than before. People are better off. Unfortunately, affluence also creates new complaints and contradictions. Advanced societies need economic growth to satisfy the multiplying wants of their citizens. But the quest for growth lets loose new anxieties and economic conflicts that disturb the social order. Affluence liberates the individual, promising that everyone can choose a unique way to self-fulfillment. But the promise is so extravagant that it predestines many disappointments and sometimes inspires choices that have anti-social consequences, including family breakdown and obesity(肥胖症). Statistical indicators of happiness have not risen with incomes. Should we be surprised? Not really. We’ve simply reaffirmed an old truth: the pursuit of affluence does not always end with happiness. 1.( )What question does John Kenneth Galbraith raise in his book The Affluent Society? A. Why statistics don’t tell the truth about the economy. B. Why affluence doesn’t guarantee happiness. C. How happiness can be promoted today. D. What lies behind an economic boom. 2.( )According to Galbraith, people feel discontented because . A. Public spending hasn’t been cut down as expected B. The government has proved to be a necessary evil C. They are in fear of another Great Depression D. Materialism has run wild in modern society 3.( )Why do people feel squeezed when their average income rises considerably? A. Their material pursuits have gone far ahead of their earnings. B. Their purchasing power has dropped markedly with inflation. C. The distribution of wealth is uneven between the rich and the poor. D. Health care and educational cost have somehow gone out of control. 4.( )What does Louis Uchitelle mean by “the disposable American” (Line 3, Para. 5)? A. Those who see job stability as part of their living standard. B. People full of utopian ideas resulting from affluence. C. People who have little say in American politics. D. Workers who no longer have secure jobs. 5.( ) What has affluence brought to American society? A. Renewed economic security. B. A sense of self-fulfillment. C. New conflicts and complaints. D. Misery and anti-social behavior.

释疑:B|D|A|D|C

4、Employees of SAS Institute live in a workers’ Utopia. On the company’s wooded campus in North Carolina is everything a person could need: doctors, dentists, on-site childcare, masseurs… SAS has just been chosen by Fortune magazine as one of the best companies to work for in the US. Like the other 99 companies singled out, SAS is not content to reward employees with a mere pay check. Instead, the company is dead set on making their lives easier. Indeed, there is little these good employers will not do to take the load off their workers’ shoulders. Some provide subsidized housekeepers. Some deliver ready-cooked gourmet meals to employees’ doors in the evening. Others offer haircuts, free Viagra, cut-price sushi, free ergonomic chairs. One company even provides $10,000 towards the cost of adopting a child. Not content with the above, some employers are helping their staff fill their leisure hours too. Many offer swimming pools and fitness centers, some arrange guitar lessons or provide garden allotments. Some even lay on company holidays, whisking workers and their partners off to luxury island locations. And that is not all: some companies also set the standard for employees to follow in their private lives. At First Tennessee, employees get a $130 cash bonus if they are seen to be practicing 10 specified healthy behavior patterns. For these forward-looking employers the vexed problem of work / life balance – assumed to be one of the greatest workplace issues facing us – is magically eliminated. These companies are mounting a take-over bid for their employees’ lives with the result that issue of balance no longer arises. And at these companies hardly anyone ever leaves. Which might mean everyone is gloriously happy. Or it might mean the prospect of severing one’s entire life from an employer is so daunting that it seems easier to stay put. Amid all this bounty there is just one thing that none of these companies offer. And that is time. If employers really want to show that they are helping employees balance their lives, the answer is not to do their shopping, fix their teeth and issue them with laptops so that they can work ‘flexibly’ right through the night. It is to ensure that people do not work too hard. To write it into the company’s culture that no one will be expected to work more than, say, 40 hours a week on average. And for the Chief Executive to show the way. Certainly this would not be easy, and probably not cheap either. But an employer that tackled the long-hours culture would be reaching the parts that all the free hairdos, Viagra and guitar lessons in the world will never reach. 1.( ) According to the passage, which is the best way for employees to balance their lives? A. To offer swimming pools and fitness centers. B. To arrange guitar lessons or provide garden allotments. C. To set the standard for employees to follow. D. To let employees have their own time, ensuring people do not work too hard. 2.( )According to the passage, which benefits are partly paid for by the companies? A. Guitar lessons B. Viagra C. housekeepers D. sushi 3.( )What does the phrase “to lay on” in the sentence “Some even lay on company holidays, whisking workers and their partners off to luxury island locations” mean? A. To provide B. To put on C. To sell D. To envisage 4.( ) The passage suggests that employers can offer the following fringe benefits to their employees except . A. holidays B. hairdos C. time D. guitar lessons 5.( ) Which of the following statements is true? A. Employers can offer any fringe benefits to their employees. B. Employers can help their employees to purchase their apartments. C. Employers issue their employees with laptops just to balance their lives. D. Employers can send their employees to luxury island locations for holidays.

释疑:D|C|A|C|D

5、Advertising is defined as any paid form of non-personal presentation made by an identified sponsor through a mass communication medium on behalf of goods, services, or ideas. Advertising is distinguished from other forms of promotion in many ways. First, it is paid for — in contrast to publicity, which seeks to attract attention in the news media and elsewhere without making any direct payment. Advertising also is “non-personal” in that it is done through television, newspapers, radios, the internet, and other media, in contrast to the face-to-face contact that takes place in personal selling. What advertising has in common with other forms of promotion is that it can be used not only to sell goods like soap or automobiles but also to promote services such as banking and insurance. It can even be used to sell ideas that may not be concerned with profit at all — drug-abuse prevention, for instance, or population control. Advertising is used to communicate both with consumers and with other businesses. Trade and industrial advertising is important if businesses are the ultimate consumer of a product or if other businesses play an important role in getting the product to the consumer. For example, retailers such as supermarkets and bookstores have limited shelf space on which to display the flood of new product offerings. Thus, these retailers are important targets for the advertising messages of food companies and publishers. The great advantage of advertising over other types of promotion is its ability to reach mass audiences quickly at a low cost per person reached. It is also the form of promotion over which the company has the greatest control. For example, when a publicity release is distributed to the media, it may be edited, rewritten, or even ignored. In an advertisement, however, the company can say whatever it chooses to say, so long as it stays within the boundaries of the law and conforms to the moral and ethical standards of the advertising medium and trade associations. For this reason, many companies use advertising to communicate their positions on current issues to the public. Advertising is an effective means of introducing a new product nationwide and generating sales leads. In addition, it can rekindle interest in a product whose sales have grown sluggish. Little wonder, then, that businesses of all kinds allocate large sums of money for advertising. The percentage of income a company spends on advertising varies according to the product and the market. A cosmetics company, for example, may spend 30 percent or more of its total sales dollars to promote its products in a highly competitive market. Yet a company that manufactures heavy industrial machinery may spend less than 1 percent. 1.( )Advertising is different from other forms of promotion because it is ________. A. personal B. non-personal C. attractive D. popular 2.( )Which of the following is not the common thing that advertising and other forms of promotion share? A. They are used to sell goods. B. They are used to promote services. C. They are used to sell ideas. D. They are used to make face-to-face contact. 3.( )Why is advertising used to communicate with some other businesses according to the passage? A. Because they may be consumers or retailers. B. Because they are competitive enterprises. C. Because advertising will do good to them. 4.( )It can be concluded from the passage that the advantages of advertising are as follows except ___________. A. reaching mass audiences quickly B. being at a low cost per person reached C. resulting in better goods and services. D. company’s greatest control over advertising 5.( ) According to the passage, 30 percent or more of its total sales may be spent on advertising by ________. A. a machinery manufacturer B. a cosmetics company C. a food company or a publisher D. a computer company

释疑:B|D|A|C|B

6、It seems like just yesterday. In 2005 the global economy was booming. In the United States, for example, business profits were soaring, jobs were plentiful, and home ownership was at any all-time high. The stock market reached unprecedented highs, pension plans were burgeoning, and new business opportunities were plentiful. Fast-forward just four short years to 2009, and things looked a lot different. Business profits were down, hundreds of thousands of jobs were lost and unemployment claims soared, and mortgage foreclosures were the order of the day. The stock market plummeted, pension plans went broke, and it seemed like no one wanted to start a new business. What happened in this short period of time? Economists call it the business cycle. Historically, our business has followed long periods of prosperity, with periods of cutbacks and retreats. And that’s where we were in 2009. During extended periods of prosperity, people sometimes think the good times will last forever. They continue to bid up stock prices, for instance, far beyond rational value. They also take on too much debt, save too little money, and spend beyond their means. But things have a way of correcting themselves, and that’s what happened beginning in 2008. So what does the future hold? Well, while no one has a real crystal ball, most experts agree that the bad times will run their course, and then things will start looking up again. It may take another year, or it may take five. But one day soon, profits will again start to surge, businesses will embark on ambitious hiring plans, the stock market will surpass all previous highs, and business opportunities will again be plentiful. Until then though, managers have to focus on following core business principles and do their best to steer their organizations through today’s turbulence. 1.( )In the last paragraph, what do most experts mean by agreeing that the bad times will run their course? . A. The bad times will last forever. B. The bad times will end eventually. C. The bad times brings hopes to people. D. The bad times are the driving force of the economy 2.( ) What is this passage about? . A. The economy of the United States B. The American Stock market C. The business cycle D. The global economy. 3.( )What does the expression “looking up” in the sentence “…, most experts agree that the bad times will run their course, and then things will start looking up again.” of the last paragraph mean? A. worsening B. deteriorating C. improving D. increasing 4.( )The writer’s attitude toward the future is . A. pessimistic B. optimistic C. negative D. ambitious 5.( )In the sentence “So what does the future hold? Well, while no one has a real crystal ball, …”, “no one has a real crystal ball” means that . A. no one can get a real crystal ball in the future. B. a real crystal ball is so beautiful that everyone loves it. C. no one can predict exactly what will happen in the future. D. no one has confidence in the future.

释疑:B|C|C|B|C

7、Life assurance has existed, in one form or another, for thousands of years. When Roman soldiers were paid, part of their earnings went into a fund on their behalf. If they were in battle then this money was given to their families. Or, if they were retired from the army, they were given this money to help them start a new career. In the days when pirates used to attack ships at sea, many sea captains used to club together by putting money into a fund. Then when one of these captains was unlucky enough to get captured, money from the fund was used to pay his ransom and so get them released as soon as possible. Gradually, over the centuries, the basic principles of life assurance were growing. One very important idea or principle that began to develop was that — if life assurance was to work well — a fund of money was needed. People who wanted to have assurance would join a club or society and pay money regularly into the society’s fund each year. In this way, the fund would gradually grow, and if one of the society’s members did die there should be enough in the fund to be able to pay out the amount assured. The problem that remained was this: how much should each person put into the fund? This important question was solved by a mathematics teacher who worked in London two hundred years ago. He was James Dodson. He realized that the amount each person should pay into the fund rested on the principle of probability. That is — how probable or likely was it that the person might die? Using his mathematics, James Dodson calculated the probability of death for each individual who wanted life assurance. Today, we say that we are working out a person’s life expectancy — how long the person can expect or hope to live. Much will depend on the age of the person, how healthy he or she is, and how risky the job he or she does. James Dodson realized that the more likely a person was to die, the fewer years he or she would be expected to pay into the fund and, therefore, the more he or she should pay each year. With this information, James Dodson could calculate mathematically the fixed amount that each person should pay each year, in order to be assured that an agreed sum of money would be given to his or her family when he or she died. This fixed amount of money is known as a level premium — because it remains at the same level for as long as he or she keeps up the policy. So, in 1762, the first scientifically calculated life assurance began — although, sadly, James Dodson himself died before his scheme started working properly. 1.( )Life assurance has existed for thousands of years. This statement is supported by two examples given in this passage, they are . A. Roman soldiers’ fund and James Dodson’s scheme B. pirates’ attack and sea captains’ fund C. level premium and James Dodson’s scheme D. Roman soldiers’ fund and sea captains’ fund 2.( )The problem that how much each person should put into the fund was solved by James Dodson based on the principle of . A. probability B. health C. level premium D. club fund 3.( )If a person wants to have assurance he has to pay money regularly into the club’s or society’s fund each year. What the person does is generally referred to as “ ”. A. paying a premium B. raising the fund C. collecting money D. paying the ransom 4.( ) A person’s life expectancy has much to do with the following factors except . A. age B. health C. hobby D. job 5.( ) Which of the following is the most proper title of this passage? . A. Life Assurance. . B. History of Life Assurance. C. Basic Principles of Life Assurance D. A Person’s Life Expectancy

释疑:D|A|A|C|C

8、The UK is extremely dependent on foreign trade. About 40 per cent of the population’s food and a large proportion of the raw materials used by industry have to be imported. In 1980 exports of goods and services were equal to about 25 per cent of the Gross National Product. In the exports of manufactures, the UK, in recent years, has done less well than her major competitors. The UK’s share of the value of the main manufacturing countries’ exports fell from 16 percent in 1980 to about 9 per cent in 1999. This was due to the fact that the volume of UK exports increased at an annual average rate of 5 per cent, only about one-half the rate achieved by the main manufacturing countries as a whole and about one-third the rate for Japan. Changes in the commodity composition of exports have been very small in recent years. The share of manufactured goods has increased slightly while the share of basic materials has declined. There has been a steady decline in the share of textiles and an increase in the share of chemicals in total exports. Over the next decade the possibility of exporting North Sea Oil and the diminishing dependence on imported oil should have a beneficial effect on the UK’s visible trade balance. The most striking change in the geographical distribution of UK exports in recent years has been the swing away from the traditional Commonwealth markets and a growing dependence on the market in Western Europe. Exports to Western Europeaccounted for about 34 per cent of UK exports in 1989 but by 2000 this share had grown to nearly 60 per cent. This is much in line with developments in world trade as a whole, because trade between industrialized countries has been the fastest growing sector of world trade. The other important development is the growing importance of the markets in the oil-exporting countries. 1.( )The export of manufactures of U.K. during recent years . A. has risen. B. has done better than the major competitors. C. has fallen D. has done less well that developing countries. 2.( )The export of textiles . A. has declined B. has declined sharply C. has increased slightly D. has increased sharply 3.( )The export of basic materials . A. has increased B. has declined C. has remained steady D. has little changed 4.( )4. What is the most striking change in UK exports? A. The swing away from the traditional Commonwealth markets and a growing dependence on the market in Western Europe. B. Changes in the commodity composition of exports. C. The increase of the share of manufactured goods and the decline of the share of basic materials. D. the beneficial effect of the export of oil on the UK’s visible trade balance. 5.( )5. Which statement is not true? A. UK is exporting more to Western Europe. B. trade between UK and Western Europe has been the fastest growing sector of world trade. C. UK will possibly import less oil over the next decade. D. UK is exporting more chemicals.

释疑:C|A|A|A|B

9、Is a quiet revolution under way in the nation’s shopping habits? Are we gradually allowing an increasingly select number of large companies to take care of all our basic requirements? The supermarket chains certainly hope so. ‘People don’t have the time to shop around any more. If they’re happy with the quality of a company’s service, then they’re likely to buy other product types from them as well,’ says Jim Austin, an industry analyst. With the major supermarket brands such as Tesco, J Sainsbury and Asda already offering financial services, credit cards, own-label clothing, mobile phones, and cut-price electrical goods including computers, Austin believes that the supermarkets’ diversification is set to continue. ‘The UK retail food market is saturated, so their only real prospect of growth is either to enter foreign markets or diversify into new markets at home..’ Tesco and J Sainsbury have done both. Having already bought foreign subsidiaries, both large supermarket chains have set up their own banks in order to offer customers financial services such as personal loans, mortgages and savings accounts. Together, the two new banks took over £2bn of customer deposits within the first year of trading. ‘They are winning business by using a lower cost base to offer their customers better interest rates on savings than traditional banks,’ says Austin. However, there are question marks over long-term profitability. The traditional providers say there is bound to come a point when the new banks will eventually want to widen margins and boost profits. ‘When they start to raise prices, they might create bad publicity, which could hurt their brand,’ says one observer. ‘How will a major supermarket react, for instance, when it is faced with having to repossess a regular shopper’s home?’ Shoppers, however, do not share these fears. A recent survey of 1,000 people by brand consultants Cook & Pearson concludes that shoppers will continue to buy a wider range of goods and services from supermarkets. Many people said that they would be prepared to buy a supermarket own-label car or even a house from a supermarket-branded estate agent. Interest was also shown in combining a food shopping trip with a visit to a supermarket dentist. Loyalty schemes are another incentive for customers. ‘Most supermarkets now offer bonus points with every purchase. These points add up to free air miles or cash discounts, so it really pays to stay loyal to the brand in all its diversified forms,’ says Austin. 1.( ) Why are the large UK supermarket chains diversifying? _____________. A. Because the retail food market in the UK has been occupied by foreign companies. B. Because the retail food market in the UK is saturated. C. Because the retail food market in the UK is quite small. D. Because diversification into new markets can promote the growth of the retail food market in the UK. 2.( )How are the supermarkets able to attract business in the banking sector? ____________. A. Because they can offer more services. B. Because they can offer more varieties of commodities. C. Because they can offer better interest rates. D. Because they can offer free car parking for customers. 3.( ) What are the risks involved with brandstretching? _________________. A. There may come a point when providers will want to raise prices. B. There may come a point when providers lose all their banking business. C. There may come a point when customers lose their confidence in the banking sector. D. All the UK large supermarkets will have to close all their banking business. 4.( )How do the large UK supermarket chains encourage brand loyalty? ___________. A. By offering free samples of commodities. B. By offering a wide range of goods and services. C. By offering convenient banking services. D. By offering loyalty schemes like bonus points. 5.( ) The headline “Banking on a brand” means ______________. A. selling a brand B. purchasing a brand C. relying on a brand D. stretching a brand

释疑:B|C|A|D|C

10、The process of mediation is in essence a negotiation that is facilitated by an objective third person. The parties remain the decision makers in the process, and the mediator assists in keeping the channels of communication open, guiding the parties in the process of identifying and resolving each issue separately, and preparing a final agreement. Although for many years the use of mediation has been a common means of resolving noncommercial disputes, it is increasingly being used in the business and international arenas. The focus of mediation is on the future relationship of the parties. The process is intended to allow the parties to repair and then build a more durable relationship that will hopefully continue to their mutual benefit. Often, mediation results in a compromise by both parties, and they both come out winners. The process is informal, relatively easy and fast, and less costly than arbitration or trial. It is also non-binding and voluntary, so that the parties can be less concerned about fighting for their rights and more constructive in protecting their interests. Another advantage of mediation is that it is confidential; information revealed during the process and any agreement made will not be on the public record. The parties typically choose a mediator or are referred to mediation by a court before litigation is pursued. A mediator may meet with the parties separately to identify and clarify the issues and hold joint sessions to assist them in arriving at an agreement. Sessions will be devoted to improving communication between the parties and guiding them toward their own solution. A mediator may develop solutions and recommend to the parties but will not impose a settlement on the parties. If no agreement is reached, the mediator will not decide in favor of one party. Rather, the mediation will simply be unsuccessful. 1.( )According to the passage, how many things the mediator can do to facilitate the process of mediation? A. Two B. Three C. Four D. Five  2.( ) From the legal perspective, mediation is not allowed to take place between . A. a customs officer and a smuggler B. a father and a son C. an importer and an exporter D. two countries at war 3.( )In the second paragraph, which of the following is not mentioned about mediation ? A. Disadvantages B. focus C. Possible results D. Purpose 4.( )Which of the following pairs of words demonstrates a relationship that is most similar to that between Mediator and Mediation? A. Arbitrator and Arbitration B. Banker and Banking C. Insurer and Insurance D. Shipper and Shipment 5.( )Which of the following statements is true? A. According to the writer, mediation is such a simple way to solve issues that it is unlikely to be successful. . B. A judge will sometimes proposes that disputing parties solve their issues through mediation instead of litigation. C. A mediator will decide in favor of one party only when agreement is reached. D. In order to make mediation successful, a mediator will demand that the parties accept a settlement he has made.

释疑:B|A|A|A|B

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作者: 张老师

从事高等教育自学考试、成人高考教学管理、研究等工作近十年。曾参与相关科目教材编写与审定。主讲《大学语文》、《公共关系学》、《思想道德修养与法律基础》等多门科目,积累了丰富的教学经验,造诣颇深,对考试方向把握游刃有余,极具大家风范!

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