1、The most important shipping 1 is the bill of 2 . It is: firstly, a contract between the 3 and the shipping company; secondly, a receipt for the consignment; and thirdly, a document of 4 . It not only contains a full 5 of the consignment-numbers and weights and marks of packages, but a lot of other information as well. It lists the name of the shipper and the carrying vessel, the ports of 6 and 7 . The 8 , the name of the consignee, and the 9 of shipment, which is very important 10 a contractual point of view.
2、The euro is 1 a tool to 2 political solidarity. This political motivation began when the idea of the European union and a 3 currency was first conceived. while it also has the economic effect of 4 the economies of participating countries , it ultimately does much more for the European union. Economically, the 5 advantages include: 6 of exchange-rate fluctuations, 7 transparency, lower transaction 8 , increased trade across borders, increased cross-border employment simplified billing, financial market 9 ,macro-economic stability, lower interest 10 , and structural reform for European economies.
3、 International trade-the exchange of goods and services 1 borders is often explained by the theory of comparative advantage which has become the cornerstone of modern thinking 2 international trade. This theory was produced by David Ricardo 3 was an English economist in the nineteenth century. This theory points out that trade between countries can be 4 beneficial even if a country is less 5 than another in the production of every commodity. As 6 as there are minor, relative differences in the efficiency of producing a commodity, 7 the poor country can have a comparative advantage in producing 8 comparative advantage is not a static concept. A country may 9 a particular comparative advantage purely through its own actions, independent of the endowments of nature. A case in point is Switzerland’s 10 advantage in watchmaking.
4、International investment can be classified into two categories: portfolio investment and foreign direct investment. portfolio investment is a kind of investment in 1 the investor does not exercise any managerial control. The investor either holds foreign bonds or other non-equity 2 which do not confer ownership rights or the investor holds stock shares (or other equities)in a foreign company in an amount 3 small to exercise any managerial control. In 4 foreign direct investment is a 5 equity investment in a foreign company that gives the investor managerial control 6 that company, foreign derect investments are mainly 7 out by multinational corporations . surveys and cases studies indicate that their common 8 for making foreign direct investments are based on strategic considerations involving market 9 ,technological know-how, reducing 10 of distribution and transportation, labor, raw materials and political factors.
5、Reasons for the increasing use of counter trade include: firstly, the world debt 1 has made ordinary trade financing very 2 . Many countries cannot 3 the trade credit or financial 4 to pay for desired imports. Secondly, countries are increasingly returning to the notion of bilateralism as a way to reduce trade 5 . Thirdly, counter trade is often viewed 6 an excellent mechanism to gain entry 7 new markets. The party receiving the goods may become a new 8 , opening up new international marketing channels and ultimately 9 the market. And lastly, 10 counter trade services helps sellers differentiate its products from those of competitors.
答案：the dirty float
答案：Generalized System of Preferences
答案：The credit country
答案：the Population plan
答案：the Preferential tax
答案：Regular payment/payment in stages
答案：The land and Labour
答案：The international contract
答案：free trade zone
答案：foreign direct investment
答案：transfer of technology
答案：special drawing rights
答案：foreign exchange shortage
答案：Port of origin
答案：confirmed letter of credit
答案：the World Bank
答案：Mutual benefit trade
答案：Value added tax
答案：Dating back to
答案：the Comparative advantage
答案：The visible trade
1、Dear Sirs Lightweight batteries We are the manufacturers of BROADWAY delivery vehicles and electronic vehicles for disabled people. Our company is a subsidiary of Broadway International Inc. of Portland, Oregon. We are seeking an alternative supplier of lightweight batteries to power our vehicles. As far as we are aware you do not have a local distributor of your products in this country. A full specification of our requirements is given on the attached sheet. Quantity required: 4,800 units Delivery: by 15 January 2007 Please quote us your best CIF price, giving a full specification of your product and shipping date. We would need to have samples of the batteries to test in our laboratories before placing a firm order. We usually deal with new suppliers on the basis of payment in our currency by confirmed 60-day irrevocable letter of credit. If our laboratory tests are satisfactory and you can provide us with a good price and service, we will be happy to place more substantial orders on a regular basis. We look forward to receiving an early reply to this enquiry. Yours faithfully Fred A North Buying Manager Enclosed: specification and technical brochure 1.（ ） What is the purpose of the letter? _________________. A. To promote BROADWAY products and services. B. To persuade customers to place an order. C. To seek a prospective supplier. D. To thank customers for their orders. 2.（ ） Why can’t the products mentioned in the letter be purchased locally? ______. A. Because the products have been sold out at that moment. B. Because they don’t like the products sold locally. C. Because the products are sold in the local market at much higher prices. D. Because no local distributors sell such products. 3.（ ） The trade term CIF should be followed by ________________. A. port of destination B. port of shipment C. place of destination D. place of shipment 4. （ ）The phrase “deal with” in the letter means _________________. A. handle B. specialize in C. cope with D. do business with 5. （ ） The proposed terms of payment are _________________. A. by 60-day confirming irrevocable L/C B. by 60-day transferable irrevocable L/C C. by confirmed irrevocable L/C available by draft at 60-day sight D. by 60-day bill of exchange
2、Ask a Swedish Ericsson executive ‘Talar du Svenska?’ and he may well reply ‘Yes. But only at home. At work I speak English.’ Ericsson is one of a growing number of European companies that use English as their official corporate language. These companies recognize and, at the same time, increase the dominance of English as the language of international communication. Soon the number of speakers of English as a second language will exceed that of native English speakers. Although a company might use English as its official language, its employees are unlikely to be bilingual. Language trainer Jacquie Reid thinks we consistently overestimate the fluency of nonnative speakers. ‘We always assume that because their language skills are better than ours, they understand everything we say.’ So how should we adapt our use of language and what are the common problems? ‘Simplify it,’ is Reid’s advice. ‘Don’t over-complicate the message. Reduce what you’re saying to manageable chunks.’ Reid always tells people to limit themselves to one idea per sentence. ‘It’s also important to slow down and not raise your voice.’ Dr Jasmine Patel, a language consultant at Europhone, says different languages also have their own approach to dialogue. ‘The British start with idiomatic expression such as So, should we get down to it? And understate important issues with phrases such as There could be a slight problem. They also say That’s a good idea, but …when they mean No and they repeatedly use the word get with different meanings. And worst of all, they insist on using humour which is so culture-specific that no-one understand it.’ The majority of English native speakers are insensitive to the stress of trying to understand a foreign language in a work environment because they rely on the business world speaking their language. At Ericsson, however, this is not the case. At the UK subsidiary, Ericsson Telecommunications, management training courses include seminars on both language and cross-cultural issues. A frequent comment made in follow-up evaluations is that increased awareness has improved communication and, more importantly, given participants a better understanding of their own language and how others might interpret it. 1.（ ） Why does Ericsson use English as its official language? _____________. A. Because English is spoken the majority of people in the world. B. Because English is the native language of British people. C. Because English is the dominant language of international communication. D. Because English is a useful tool in the business world. 2. （ ）Which of the following ways may not help native English speakers to communicate more effectively? _______________. A. To make their message simple B. To keep one idea per sentence C. To speak more slowly D. To use vogue terms when speaking 3. （ ）Native English speakers are not aware of the difficulties of listening to foreign language as _________________. A. English is preferred by all people at work B. English is the most useful language. C. English is spoken in their work environment. D. they take pride in speaking English at work. 4.（ ）Ericsson makes its employees more aware of the difficulties of listening to foreign language through _______________. A. teaching its employees foreign languages B. sending its employees overseas to learn foreign languages C. more exchanges with overseas companies D. language and cultural awareness seminars 5.（ ）The word “approach” in the second line of the fourth paragraph is closest in meaning to ______________. A. contact B. touch C. way D. appropriate
3、You hear the refrain all the time: the U.S. economy looks good statistically, but it doesn’t feel good. Why doesn’t ever-greater wealth promote ever-greater happiness? It is a question that dates at least to the appearance in 1958 of The Affluent (富裕的） Society by John Kenneth Galbraith, who died recently at 97. The Affluent Society is a modern classic because it helped define a new moment in the human condition. For most of history, “hunger, sickness, and cold” threatened nearly everyone, Galbraith wrote. “Poverty was found everywhere in that world. Obviously it is not of ours.” After World War II, the dread of another Great Depression gave way to an economic boom. In the 1930s unemployment had averaged 18.2 percent; in the 1950s it was 4.5 percent. To Galbraith, materialism had gone mad and would breed discontent. Through advertising, companies conditioned consumers to buy things they didn’t really want or need. Because so much spending was artificial, it would be unfulfilling. Meanwhile, government spending that would make everyone better off was being cut down because people instinctively—and wrongly—labeled government only as “a necessary evil.” It’s often said that only the rich are getting ahead; everyone else is standing still or falling behind. Well, there are many undeserving rich—overpaid chief executives, for instance. But over any meaningful period, most people’s incomes are increasing. From 1995 to 2004, inflation-adjusted average family income rose 14.3 percent, to $43,200. People feel “squeezed” because their rising incomes often don’t satisfy their rising wants—for bigger homes, more health care, more education, faster Internet connections. The other great frustration is that it has not eliminated insecurity. People regard job stability as part of their standard of living. As corporate layoffs increased, that part has eroded. More workers fear they’ve become “the disposable American,” as Louis Uchitelle puts it in his book by the same name. Because so much previous suffering and social conflict stemmed from poverty, the arrival of widespread affluence suggested utopian （乌托邦式的） possibilities. Up to a point, affluence succeeds. There is much less physical misery than before. People are better off. Unfortunately, affluence also creates new complaints and contradictions. Advanced societies need economic growth to satisfy the multiplying wants of their citizens. But the quest for growth lets loose new anxieties and economic conflicts that disturb the social order. Affluence liberates the individual, promising that everyone can choose a unique way to self-fulfillment. But the promise is so extravagant that it predestines many disappointments and sometimes inspires choices that have anti-social consequences, including family breakdown and obesity（肥胖症）. Statistical indicators of happiness have not risen with incomes. Should we be surprised? Not really. We’ve simply reaffirmed an old truth: the pursuit of affluence does not always end with happiness. 1.（ ）What question does John Kenneth Galbraith raise in his book The Affluent Society? A. Why statistics don’t tell the truth about the economy. B. Why affluence doesn’t guarantee happiness. C. How happiness can be promoted today. D. What lies behind an economic boom. 2.（ ）According to Galbraith, people feel discontented because . A. Public spending hasn’t been cut down as expected B. The government has proved to be a necessary evil C. They are in fear of another Great Depression D. Materialism has run wild in modern society 3.（ ）Why do people feel squeezed when their average income rises considerably? A. Their material pursuits have gone far ahead of their earnings. B. Their purchasing power has dropped markedly with inflation. C. The distribution of wealth is uneven between the rich and the poor. D. Health care and educational cost have somehow gone out of control. 4.（ ）What does Louis Uchitelle mean by “the disposable American” （Line 3, Para. 5）? A. Those who see job stability as part of their living standard. B. People full of utopian ideas resulting from affluence. C. People who have little say in American politics. D. Workers who no longer have secure jobs. 5.（ ） What has affluence brought to American society? A. Renewed economic security. B. A sense of self-fulfillment. C. New conflicts and complaints. D. Misery and anti-social behavior.
4、Employees of SAS Institute live in a workers’ Utopia. On the company’s wooded campus in North Carolina is everything a person could need: doctors, dentists, on-site childcare, masseurs… SAS has just been chosen by Fortune magazine as one of the best companies to work for in the US. Like the other 99 companies singled out, SAS is not content to reward employees with a mere pay check. Instead, the company is dead set on making their lives easier. Indeed, there is little these good employers will not do to take the load off their workers’ shoulders. Some provide subsidized housekeepers. Some deliver ready-cooked gourmet meals to employees’ doors in the evening. Others offer haircuts, free Viagra, cut-price sushi, free ergonomic chairs. One company even provides $10,000 towards the cost of adopting a child. Not content with the above, some employers are helping their staff fill their leisure hours too. Many offer swimming pools and fitness centers, some arrange guitar lessons or provide garden allotments. Some even lay on company holidays, whisking workers and their partners off to luxury island locations. And that is not all: some companies also set the standard for employees to follow in their private lives. At First Tennessee, employees get a $130 cash bonus if they are seen to be practicing 10 specified healthy behavior patterns. For these forward-looking employers the vexed problem of work / life balance – assumed to be one of the greatest workplace issues facing us – is magically eliminated. These companies are mounting a take-over bid for their employees’ lives with the result that issue of balance no longer arises. And at these companies hardly anyone ever leaves. Which might mean everyone is gloriously happy. Or it might mean the prospect of severing one’s entire life from an employer is so daunting that it seems easier to stay put. Amid all this bounty there is just one thing that none of these companies offer. And that is time. If employers really want to show that they are helping employees balance their lives, the answer is not to do their shopping, fix their teeth and issue them with laptops so that they can work ‘flexibly’ right through the night. It is to ensure that people do not work too hard. To write it into the company’s culture that no one will be expected to work more than, say, 40 hours a week on average. And for the Chief Executive to show the way. Certainly this would not be easy, and probably not cheap either. But an employer that tackled the long-hours culture would be reaching the parts that all the free hairdos, Viagra and guitar lessons in the world will never reach. 1.（ ） According to the passage, which is the best way for employees to balance their lives? A. To offer swimming pools and fitness centers. B. To arrange guitar lessons or provide garden allotments. C. To set the standard for employees to follow. D. To let employees have their own time, ensuring people do not work too hard. 2.（ ）According to the passage, which benefits are partly paid for by the companies? A. Guitar lessons B. Viagra C. housekeepers D. sushi 3.（ ）What does the phrase “to lay on” in the sentence “Some even lay on company holidays, whisking workers and their partners off to luxury island locations” mean? A. To provide B. To put on C. To sell D. To envisage 4.（ ） The passage suggests that employers can offer the following fringe benefits to their employees except . A. holidays B. hairdos C. time D. guitar lessons 5.（ ） Which of the following statements is true? A. Employers can offer any fringe benefits to their employees. B. Employers can help their employees to purchase their apartments. C. Employers issue their employees with laptops just to balance their lives. D. Employers can send their employees to luxury island locations for holidays.
5、Advertising is defined as any paid form of non-personal presentation made by an identified sponsor through a mass communication medium on behalf of goods, services, or ideas. Advertising is distinguished from other forms of promotion in many ways. First, it is paid for — in contrast to publicity, which seeks to attract attention in the news media and elsewhere without making any direct payment. Advertising also is “non-personal” in that it is done through television, newspapers, radios, the internet, and other media, in contrast to the face-to-face contact that takes place in personal selling. What advertising has in common with other forms of promotion is that it can be used not only to sell goods like soap or automobiles but also to promote services such as banking and insurance. It can even be used to sell ideas that may not be concerned with profit at all — drug-abuse prevention, for instance, or population control. Advertising is used to communicate both with consumers and with other businesses. Trade and industrial advertising is important if businesses are the ultimate consumer of a product or if other businesses play an important role in getting the product to the consumer. For example, retailers such as supermarkets and bookstores have limited shelf space on which to display the flood of new product offerings. Thus, these retailers are important targets for the advertising messages of food companies and publishers. The great advantage of advertising over other types of promotion is its ability to reach mass audiences quickly at a low cost per person reached. It is also the form of promotion over which the company has the greatest control. For example, when a publicity release is distributed to the media, it may be edited, rewritten, or even ignored. In an advertisement, however, the company can say whatever it chooses to say, so long as it stays within the boundaries of the law and conforms to the moral and ethical standards of the advertising medium and trade associations. For this reason, many companies use advertising to communicate their positions on current issues to the public. Advertising is an effective means of introducing a new product nationwide and generating sales leads. In addition, it can rekindle interest in a product whose sales have grown sluggish. Little wonder, then, that businesses of all kinds allocate large sums of money for advertising. The percentage of income a company spends on advertising varies according to the product and the market. A cosmetics company, for example, may spend 30 percent or more of its total sales dollars to promote its products in a highly competitive market. Yet a company that manufactures heavy industrial machinery may spend less than 1 percent. 1.（ ）Advertising is different from other forms of promotion because it is ________. A. personal B. non-personal C. attractive D. popular 2.（ ）Which of the following is not the common thing that advertising and other forms of promotion share? A. They are used to sell goods. B. They are used to promote services. C. They are used to sell ideas. D. They are used to make face-to-face contact. 3.（ ）Why is advertising used to communicate with some other businesses according to the passage? A. Because they may be consumers or retailers. B. Because they are competitive enterprises. C. Because advertising will do good to them. 4.（ ）It can be concluded from the passage that the advantages of advertising are as follows except ___________. A. reaching mass audiences quickly B. being at a low cost per person reached C. resulting in better goods and services. D. company’s greatest control over advertising 5.（ ） According to the passage, 30 percent or more of its total sales may be spent on advertising by ________. A. a machinery manufacturer B. a cosmetics company C. a food company or a publisher D. a computer company
6、It seems like just yesterday. In 2005 the global economy was booming. In the United States, for example, business profits were soaring, jobs were plentiful, and home ownership was at any all-time high. The stock market reached unprecedented highs, pension plans were burgeoning, and new business opportunities were plentiful. Fast-forward just four short years to 2009, and things looked a lot different. Business profits were down, hundreds of thousands of jobs were lost and unemployment claims soared, and mortgage foreclosures were the order of the day. The stock market plummeted, pension plans went broke, and it seemed like no one wanted to start a new business. What happened in this short period of time? Economists call it the business cycle. Historically, our business has followed long periods of prosperity, with periods of cutbacks and retreats. And that’s where we were in 2009. During extended periods of prosperity, people sometimes think the good times will last forever. They continue to bid up stock prices, for instance, far beyond rational value. They also take on too much debt, save too little money, and spend beyond their means. But things have a way of correcting themselves, and that’s what happened beginning in 2008. So what does the future hold? Well, while no one has a real crystal ball, most experts agree that the bad times will run their course, and then things will start looking up again. It may take another year, or it may take five. But one day soon, profits will again start to surge, businesses will embark on ambitious hiring plans, the stock market will surpass all previous highs, and business opportunities will again be plentiful. Until then though, managers have to focus on following core business principles and do their best to steer their organizations through today’s turbulence. 1.（ ）In the last paragraph, what do most experts mean by agreeing that the bad times will run their course? . A. The bad times will last forever. B. The bad times will end eventually. C. The bad times brings hopes to people. D. The bad times are the driving force of the economy 2.（ ） What is this passage about? . A. The economy of the United States B. The American Stock market C. The business cycle D. The global economy. 3.（ ）What does the expression “looking up” in the sentence “…, most experts agree that the bad times will run their course, and then things will start looking up again.” of the last paragraph mean? A. worsening B. deteriorating C. improving D. increasing 4.（ ）The writer’s attitude toward the future is . A. pessimistic B. optimistic C. negative D. ambitious 5.（ ）In the sentence “So what does the future hold? Well, while no one has a real crystal ball, …”, “no one has a real crystal ball” means that . A. no one can get a real crystal ball in the future. B. a real crystal ball is so beautiful that everyone loves it. C. no one can predict exactly what will happen in the future. D. no one has confidence in the future.
7、Life assurance has existed, in one form or another, for thousands of years. When Roman soldiers were paid, part of their earnings went into a fund on their behalf. If they were in battle then this money was given to their families. Or, if they were retired from the army, they were given this money to help them start a new career. In the days when pirates used to attack ships at sea, many sea captains used to club together by putting money into a fund. Then when one of these captains was unlucky enough to get captured, money from the fund was used to pay his ransom and so get them released as soon as possible. Gradually, over the centuries, the basic principles of life assurance were growing. One very important idea or principle that began to develop was that — if life assurance was to work well — a fund of money was needed. People who wanted to have assurance would join a club or society and pay money regularly into the society’s fund each year. In this way, the fund would gradually grow, and if one of the society’s members did die there should be enough in the fund to be able to pay out the amount assured. The problem that remained was this: how much should each person put into the fund? This important question was solved by a mathematics teacher who worked in London two hundred years ago. He was James Dodson. He realized that the amount each person should pay into the fund rested on the principle of probability. That is — how probable or likely was it that the person might die? Using his mathematics, James Dodson calculated the probability of death for each individual who wanted life assurance. Today, we say that we are working out a person’s life expectancy — how long the person can expect or hope to live. Much will depend on the age of the person, how healthy he or she is, and how risky the job he or she does. James Dodson realized that the more likely a person was to die, the fewer years he or she would be expected to pay into the fund and, therefore, the more he or she should pay each year. With this information, James Dodson could calculate mathematically the fixed amount that each person should pay each year, in order to be assured that an agreed sum of money would be given to his or her family when he or she died. This fixed amount of money is known as a level premium — because it remains at the same level for as long as he or she keeps up the policy. So, in 1762, the first scientifically calculated life assurance began — although, sadly, James Dodson himself died before his scheme started working properly. 1.（ ）Life assurance has existed for thousands of years. This statement is supported by two examples given in this passage, they are . A. Roman soldiers’ fund and James Dodson’s scheme B. pirates’ attack and sea captains’ fund C. level premium and James Dodson’s scheme D. Roman soldiers’ fund and sea captains’ fund 2.（ ）The problem that how much each person should put into the fund was solved by James Dodson based on the principle of . A. probability B. health C. level premium D. club fund 3.（ ）If a person wants to have assurance he has to pay money regularly into the club’s or society’s fund each year. What the person does is generally referred to as “ ”. A. paying a premium B. raising the fund C. collecting money D. paying the ransom 4.（ ） A person’s life expectancy has much to do with the following factors except . A. age B. health C. hobby D. job 5.（ ） Which of the following is the most proper title of this passage? . A. Life Assurance. . B. History of Life Assurance. C. Basic Principles of Life Assurance D. A Person’s Life Expectancy
8、The UK is extremely dependent on foreign trade. About 40 per cent of the population’s food and a large proportion of the raw materials used by industry have to be imported. In 1980 exports of goods and services were equal to about 25 per cent of the Gross National Product. In the exports of manufactures, the UK, in recent years, has done less well than her major competitors. The UK’s share of the value of the main manufacturing countries’ exports fell from 16 percent in 1980 to about 9 per cent in 1999. This was due to the fact that the volume of UK exports increased at an annual average rate of 5 per cent, only about one-half the rate achieved by the main manufacturing countries as a whole and about one-third the rate for Japan. Changes in the commodity composition of exports have been very small in recent years. The share of manufactured goods has increased slightly while the share of basic materials has declined. There has been a steady decline in the share of textiles and an increase in the share of chemicals in total exports. Over the next decade the possibility of exporting North Sea Oil and the diminishing dependence on imported oil should have a beneficial effect on the UK’s visible trade balance. The most striking change in the geographical distribution of UK exports in recent years has been the swing away from the traditional Commonwealth markets and a growing dependence on the market in Western Europe. Exports to Western Europeaccounted for about 34 per cent of UK exports in 1989 but by 2000 this share had grown to nearly 60 per cent. This is much in line with developments in world trade as a whole, because trade between industrialized countries has been the fastest growing sector of world trade. The other important development is the growing importance of the markets in the oil-exporting countries. 1.（ ）The export of manufactures of U.K. during recent years . A. has risen. B. has done better than the major competitors. C. has fallen D. has done less well that developing countries. 2.（ ）The export of textiles . A. has declined B. has declined sharply C. has increased slightly D. has increased sharply 3.（ ）The export of basic materials . A. has increased B. has declined C. has remained steady D. has little changed 4.（ ）4. What is the most striking change in UK exports? A. The swing away from the traditional Commonwealth markets and a growing dependence on the market in Western Europe. B. Changes in the commodity composition of exports. C. The increase of the share of manufactured goods and the decline of the share of basic materials. D. the beneficial effect of the export of oil on the UK’s visible trade balance. 5.（ ）5. Which statement is not true? A. UK is exporting more to Western Europe. B. trade between UK and Western Europe has been the fastest growing sector of world trade. C. UK will possibly import less oil over the next decade. D. UK is exporting more chemicals.
9、Is a quiet revolution under way in the nation’s shopping habits? Are we gradually allowing an increasingly select number of large companies to take care of all our basic requirements? The supermarket chains certainly hope so. ‘People don’t have the time to shop around any more. If they’re happy with the quality of a company’s service, then they’re likely to buy other product types from them as well,’ says Jim Austin, an industry analyst. With the major supermarket brands such as Tesco, J Sainsbury and Asda already offering financial services, credit cards, own-label clothing, mobile phones, and cut-price electrical goods including computers, Austin believes that the supermarkets’ diversification is set to continue. ‘The UK retail food market is saturated, so their only real prospect of growth is either to enter foreign markets or diversify into new markets at home..’ Tesco and J Sainsbury have done both. Having already bought foreign subsidiaries, both large supermarket chains have set up their own banks in order to offer customers financial services such as personal loans, mortgages and savings accounts. Together, the two new banks took over ￡2bn of customer deposits within the first year of trading. ‘They are winning business by using a lower cost base to offer their customers better interest rates on savings than traditional banks,’ says Austin. However, there are question marks over long-term profitability. The traditional providers say there is bound to come a point when the new banks will eventually want to widen margins and boost profits. ‘When they start to raise prices, they might create bad publicity, which could hurt their brand,’ says one observer. ‘How will a major supermarket react, for instance, when it is faced with having to repossess a regular shopper’s home?’ Shoppers, however, do not share these fears. A recent survey of 1,000 people by brand consultants Cook & Pearson concludes that shoppers will continue to buy a wider range of goods and services from supermarkets. Many people said that they would be prepared to buy a supermarket own-label car or even a house from a supermarket-branded estate agent. Interest was also shown in combining a food shopping trip with a visit to a supermarket dentist. Loyalty schemes are another incentive for customers. ‘Most supermarkets now offer bonus points with every purchase. These points add up to free air miles or cash discounts, so it really pays to stay loyal to the brand in all its diversified forms,’ says Austin. 1.（ ） Why are the large UK supermarket chains diversifying? _____________. A. Because the retail food market in the UK has been occupied by foreign companies. B. Because the retail food market in the UK is saturated. C. Because the retail food market in the UK is quite small. D. Because diversification into new markets can promote the growth of the retail food market in the UK. 2.（ ）How are the supermarkets able to attract business in the banking sector? ____________. A. Because they can offer more services. B. Because they can offer more varieties of commodities. C. Because they can offer better interest rates. D. Because they can offer free car parking for customers. 3.（ ） What are the risks involved with brandstretching? _________________. A. There may come a point when providers will want to raise prices. B. There may come a point when providers lose all their banking business. C. There may come a point when customers lose their confidence in the banking sector. D. All the UK large supermarkets will have to close all their banking business. 4.（ ）How do the large UK supermarket chains encourage brand loyalty? ___________. A. By offering free samples of commodities. B. By offering a wide range of goods and services. C. By offering convenient banking services. D. By offering loyalty schemes like bonus points. 5.（ ） The headline “Banking on a brand” means ______________. A. selling a brand B. purchasing a brand C. relying on a brand D. stretching a brand
10、The process of mediation is in essence a negotiation that is facilitated by an objective third person. The parties remain the decision makers in the process, and the mediator assists in keeping the channels of communication open, guiding the parties in the process of identifying and resolving each issue separately, and preparing a final agreement. Although for many years the use of mediation has been a common means of resolving noncommercial disputes, it is increasingly being used in the business and international arenas. The focus of mediation is on the future relationship of the parties. The process is intended to allow the parties to repair and then build a more durable relationship that will hopefully continue to their mutual benefit. Often, mediation results in a compromise by both parties, and they both come out winners. The process is informal, relatively easy and fast, and less costly than arbitration or trial. It is also non-binding and voluntary, so that the parties can be less concerned about fighting for their rights and more constructive in protecting their interests. Another advantage of mediation is that it is confidential; information revealed during the process and any agreement made will not be on the public record. The parties typically choose a mediator or are referred to mediation by a court before litigation is pursued. A mediator may meet with the parties separately to identify and clarify the issues and hold joint sessions to assist them in arriving at an agreement. Sessions will be devoted to improving communication between the parties and guiding them toward their own solution. A mediator may develop solutions and recommend to the parties but will not impose a settlement on the parties. If no agreement is reached, the mediator will not decide in favor of one party. Rather, the mediation will simply be unsuccessful. 1.（ ）According to the passage, how many things the mediator can do to facilitate the process of mediation? A. Two B. Three C. Four D. Five 2.（ ） From the legal perspective, mediation is not allowed to take place between . A. a customs officer and a smuggler B. a father and a son C. an importer and an exporter D. two countries at war 3.（ ）In the second paragraph, which of the following is not mentioned about mediation ? A. Disadvantages B. focus C. Possible results D. Purpose 4.（ ）Which of the following pairs of words demonstrates a relationship that is most similar to that between Mediator and Mediation? A. Arbitrator and Arbitration B. Banker and Banking C. Insurer and Insurance D. Shipper and Shipment 5.（ ）Which of the following statements is true? A. According to the writer, mediation is such a simple way to solve issues that it is unlikely to be successful. . B. A judge will sometimes proposes that disputing parties solve their issues through mediation instead of litigation. C. A mediator will decide in favor of one party only when agreement is reached. D. In order to make mediation successful, a mediator will demand that the parties accept a settlement he has made.